# Sea will rise ‘to levels of last Ice Age’

The British tabloid Daily Mirror recently headlined that “Sea will rise ‘to levels of last Ice Age’”. No doubt many of our readers will appreciate just how scary this prospect is: sea level during the last Ice Age was up to 120 meters *lower *than today. Our favourite swimming beaches – be it Coogee in Sydney or the Darß on the German Baltic coast – would then all be high and dry, and ports like Rotterdam or Tokyo would be far from the sea. Imagine it.

But looking beyond the silly headline (another routine case of careless science reporting), what was the real story behind it? The *Mirror *article (like many others) was referring to a new paper by Grinsted, Moore and Jevrejeva published in *Climate Dynamics* (see paper and media materials). The authors conclude there that by 2100, global sea level could rise between 0.7 and 1.1 meters for the B1 emission scenario, or 1.1 to 1.6 meters for the A1FI scenario.

The method by which they derive these estimates is based on a semi-empirical formula connecting global sea level to global temperature, fitted to observed data. It assumes that after a change in global temperature, sea level will exponentially approach a new equilibrium level with a time scale τ. This extends the semi-empirical method I proposed in *Science *in 2007. I assumed that past data will tell us the* initial rate* of rise (and this initial rate is useful for projections if the time scale τ is long compared to the time horizon one is interested in). The new paper tries to obtain both the time scale τ and the final equilibrium sea level change by fitting to past data.

Therefore, my approach is a special case of Grinsted’s more general model, as you can see by inserting their Eq. (1) into (2): namely the special case for long response times (τ >> 100 years or so). Hence it is reassuring and a nice confirmation that they get the same result as me for their “Historical” case (where they get τ=1200 years) as well as their τ=infinite calculations, despite using a different sea level data set (going back to 1850, where I used the Church&White 2006 data that start in 1880) and a more elaborate statistical analysis.

However, I find their determination of τ is on rather shaky ground since the data sets used are too short to determine such a long time scale with any confidence. That their statistics suggest otherwise cannot be right – you can tell by the fact that they get contradictory results for different data sets (e.g., 1200 +/- 500 years for the “Historical” case and 210 +/- 70 years for the “Moberg” case). Both can’t be correct, so the narrow uncertainty ranges are likely an underestimate of the uncertainty.

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