Measure of the pressure gradient between the polar and subpolar regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Term was introduced by Thompson and Wallace (2000). More information on the AAO can be found here. See also Arctic Oscillation (“AO”).
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Forcing due to human, rather than natural, factors. Such factors include increased greenhouse gas concentrations associated with fossil fuel burning, sulphate aerosols produced as an industrial by-product, human-induced changes in land surface properties among other things.
Measure of the pressure gradient between the polar and subpolar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The term was introduced by Thompson and Wallace (2000). More information on the AO can be found here. See also North Atlantic Oscillation”(NAO”).
A multidecadal (50-80 year timescale) pattern of North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere variability whose existence has been argued for based on statistical analyses of observational and proxy climate data, and coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (“AOGCM”) simulations. This pattern is believed to describe some of the observed early 20th century (1920s-1930s) high-latitude Northern Hemisphere warming and some, but not all, of the high-latitude warming observed in the late 20th century. The term was introduced in a summary by Kerr (2000) of a study by Delworth and Mann (2000).