Hypothesis testing and long range memory

It’s important to realise that there is nothing magic about processes with long term persistence. This is simply a property that complex systems – like the climate – will exhibit in certain circumstances. However, like all statistical models that do not reflect the real underlying physics of a situation, assuming a form of LTP – a constant Hurst parameter for instance, is simply an assumption that may or may not be useful. Much more interesting is whether there is a match between the kinds of statistical properties seen in the real world and what is seen in the models (see below).

So what did Koutsoyiannis et al do? They took a small number of long station records and compared them to co-located grid points in single realisations of a few models and correlate their annual and longer term means. Returning to the question we asked at the top, what hypothesis is being tested here? They are using single realisations of model runs, and so they are not testing the forced component of the response (which can only be determined using ensembles or very long simulations). By correlating at the annual and other short term periods they are effectively comparing the weather in the real world with that in a model. Even without looking at their results, it is obvious that this is not going to match (since weather is uncorrelated in one realisation to another, let alone in the real world). Furthermore, by using only one to four grid boxes for their comparisons, even the longer term (30 year) forced trends are not going to come out of the noise.

Remember that the magnitude of annual, interannual and decadal variability increases substantially as spatial scales go from global, hemispheric, continental, regional to local. The IPCC report for instance is very clear in stating that the detection and attribution of climate changes is only clearly possible at continental scales and above. Note also that K et al compare absolute temperatures rather than anomalies. This isn’t a terrible idea, but single grid points have offsets to a co-located station for any number of reasons – mean altitude, un-resolved micro-climate effects, systematic but stable biases in planetary wave patterns etc. – and anomaly comparison are generally preferred since they can correct for these oft-times irrelevant effects. Finally (and surprisingly given the attention being paid to it in various circles), K et al do not consider whether any of their selected stations might have any artifacts within them that might effect their statistical properties.

Therefore, it comes as no surprise at all that K and colleagues find poor matches in their comparisons. The answer to their effective question – are very local single realisations of weather coherent across observations and models? – is no, as anyone would have concluded from reading the IPCC report or the existing literature. This is why no one uses (or should be using) single grid points from single models in any kind of future impact study. Indeed, it is the reason why regional downscaling approaches exist at all. The most effective downscaling approaches use the statistical correlations of local weather to larger scale patterns and use model projections for those patterns to estimate changes in local weather regimes. Alternatively, one can use a regional model embedded within a global model. Either way, no-one uses single grid boxes.

What might K et al have done that would have been more interesting and still relevant to their stated concerns? Well, as we stated above, comparing statistical properties in the models to the real world is very relevant. Do the models exhibit LTP? Is there spatial structure to the derived Hurst coefficients? What is the predictability of Hurst at single grid boxes even within models? Of course, some work has already been done on this.

For instance, Kiraly et al (2006, Tellus) calculated Hurst exponents for the entire database of weather stations and show that there is indeed significant structure (and some uncertainty in the estimates) in different climate regimes. In the US, there is a clear difference between the West Coast, Mountain States, and Eastern half. Areas downstream of the North Atlantic appear to have particular high Hurst values.

Other analyses show similar patterns (in this case, from Fraedrich and Blender (2003) who used the gridded datasets from 1900 onwards), though there is enough differences with the first picture that it’s probably worth investigating methodological issues in these calculations. What do you get in models? Well in very long simulations that provide enough data to estimate Hurst exponents quite accurately, the answer is mostly something similar.

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